Barrett’s esophagus (BE), which is a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), is an increasing healthcare challenge in the United States, but new tools are quickly emerging to combat the uncertainty associated with the disease. Barrett’s esophagus management decisions are often based on subjective diagnoses, so better diagnostic and prognostic techniques are needed to augment BE patient care. Here, we summarize a number of tools available to clinical decision-makers to aid diagnoses and predict the risk of disease progression, which will optimize patient surveillance intervals and guide therapeutic interventions.